Search
 
 

Primary Sources

Letter (unpublished)
APA No example given in latest edition. Important Elements:
  • Author's name
  • Recipient's name
  • Date written
  • Name of collection
  • Name of depository
  • Depository's location

Note: Spacing is important. For example, compare Chicago, MLA, and Turabian. Consult individual guides for exact spacing.

Chicago Rinker, Ella V., and Reuben E. Hammond. Papers. Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham. (Documentation One and Two)

Note: "The specific items [letters for example] themselves are not mentioned in the bibliography unless only one item in the collection is cited, in which case the entry may begin with the item." The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., p. 589, 15.277. See also p. 679, 16.135.

MLA Miller, Ella. Letter to Ella V. Rinker. Mar. 1865. Ella V. Rinker and Reuben E. Hammon Papers. Rare Book, Manuscript and Special Collections Lib., Duke U, Durham.
Turabian Miller, Ella, to Ella V. Rinker, March 1856. Ella V. Rinker and Reuben E. Hammon Papers. Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham,North Carolina.

Motion picture
APA Kopelson, A. (Producer), & Stone, O. (Writer/Director). (1986). Platoon [Motion Picture]. United States: Hemdale Film Corporation Important Elements:
  • Author's name
  • Recipient's name
  • Date written
  • Name of collection
  • Name of depository
  • Depository's location

Note: Spacing is important. For example, compare Chicago, MLA, and Turabian. Consult individual guides for exact spacing.

Chicago Platoon. Produced by Arnold Kopelson and directed by Oliver Stone. 120 min. Hemdale Film Corporation, 1986. Videocassette. 
MLA Platoon Prod. Arnold Kopelson. Dir. Oliver Stone. Perf. Tom Berenger, Willem Dafoe, and Charlie Sheen. Videocassette. Hemdale Film Corporation, 1986. 
Turabian Platoon. 1986. Produced by Arnold Kopelson and directed by Oliver Stone. 120 min. Hemdale Film Corporation. Videocassette. 

Interview (unpublished)
APA Elloie, P.H. (Speaker). (1994). Interview with K. Ellis. (cassette recording). Behind the veil: Documenting African-American life in the Jim Crow South. Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University. Important Elements:
  • Interviewee's name
  • Interviewer's name
  • Date conducted
  • Name of collection
  • Name of depository
  • Depository's location

Note: Spacing is important. For example, compare Chicago, MLA, and Turabian. Consult individual guides for exact spacing.

Chicago Elloie, Pealie Hardin. Interview by Kate Ellis. Tape Recording, 15 July 1994. Behind the Veil: Documenting African-American Life in the Jim Crow South. Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham. (Documentation One)

Elloie, Pealie Hardin. 1994. Interview by Kate Ellis. Tape recording, 15 July. Behind the Veil: Documenting African-American Life in the Jim Crow South. Rare Book,Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham.(Documentation Two)

MLA Elloie, Pealie Hardin. Interview with Kate Ellis. Rec. 15 July 1994.
Audiotape. Behind the Veil: Documenting African-Americanin the Jim Crow South. Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Lib., Duke U.
Turabian Elloie, Pealie Hardin. Interview by Kate Ellis, 15 July 1994. Cassette. Behind the Veil: Documenting African-American Life in the Jim Crow South. Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University.

Online (Digitized) Collections
APA Eaton, S. (1907). Sermons on Advertising. Retrieved August 23, 2001, from Duke University, Rare Book, Manuscript and Special Collections Web site: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/dynaweb/eaa/databases/printlit/@Generic__BookTextView/1851 Important Elements:
  • Author
  • Title of work (if titled)
  • Publication information (if previously published in print)
  • Project name
  • Publication information for the project
  • Date of access
  • Address of the site

Note: Spacing is important. For example, compare Chicago, MLA, and Turabian. Consult individual guides for exact spacing.

Chicago No example in latest edition.
MLA Eaton, Seymour. Sermons on Advertising. Seymour Adair Eaton, 1907. Emergence of Advertising in America. Rare Books, Manuscript, and Special Collections Lib., Duke U. 23 Aug. 2001 <http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/dynaweb/eaa/databases/printlit/@Generic__BookTextView/1851>.
Turabian No example in latest edition.

Special thanks to Kelley A. Lawton and Laura Cousineau at the Duke University Libraries and Van E. Hillard at the Duke University Writing Program for permission to copy and adapt these citation pages.

  
 

search login