E-mail Message

APA Note: In APA style, email messages should not be included in the Works Cited list, because they are personal communications and cannot be retrieved by a third party. They should, however, be cited in text (see APA: In-text Parenthetical Citations.) Important Elements:
  • Author's name
  • Subject line
  • Description of message that includes recipient (e.g., e-mail to the author)
  • Date of sending

Note: Spacing is important. For example, compare Chicago, MLA, and Turabian.Consult individual guides for exact spacing.

Chicago Virginia Baker, "Tips for finding sources," 28 October 2002, personal email (3 May 1996).
MLA Baker, Virginia. "Tips for finding sources." E-mail to Jane Robinson. 28 Oct. 2002.
Turabian No example in latest edition.

Special thanks to Kelley A. Lawton and Laura Cousineau at the Duke University Libraries and Van E. Hillard at the DukeUniversity Writing Program for permission to copy and adapt these citation pages.


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